Ken, you need to explain the Ninth Circuit's decision about the interaction between Section 512(f) of the DMCA and fair use law, particularly in the context of surviving motions to dismiss or summary judgment.
You can't make me.
Fine. God. You're such a child. Will you write about SOMETHING please?
. . . . maybe.
The multi-faced troll the feds just arrested? The one everyone wants to pin on "the other side" of whatever argument they're having?
Seems kind of a cop-out to me. But fine. What's he charged with, and how?
The feds — more specifically, the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Middle District of Florida — have filed a criminal complaint charging Goldberg with one count of distributing information about explosives and destructive devices.
Only one count?
It's only a complaint. See, in the federal system, prosecutors can seek a complaint — an accusation approved by a U.S. Magistrate Judge, based on the probable cause demonstrated in a written and sworn affidavit by a federal law enforcement officer — or get an indictment, which is an accusation issued by a grand jury.
But unless they plead immediately, all federal defendants charged with felonies are entitled to be charged by grand jury indictment. So if you're looking to arrest someone based on a complaint, you don't necessarily have to throw all of the charges in there — you'll have the chance to throw more in when you draft an indictment and go to the grand jury.
So he could get charged with more later?
Sure, if they've got the evidence.
Right now he's charged with one count of distributing information about things that go boom under Title 18, United States Code, Section 842(p).
What's that when it's at home?
It's a statute making it illegal to teach people how to make bombs so they can use them in a crime, basically:
(2)Prohibition.—It shall be unlawful for any person—
(A) to teach or demonstrate the making or use of an explosive, a destructive device, or a weapon of mass destruction, or to distribute by any means information pertaining to, in whole or in part, the manufacture or use of an explosive, destructive device, or weapon of mass destruction, with the intent that the teaching, demonstration, or information be used for, or in furtherance of, an activity that constitutes a Federal crime of violence; or
(B) to teach or demonstrate to any person the making or use of an explosive, a destructive device, or a weapon of mass destruction, or to distribute to any person, by any means, information pertaining to, in whole or in part, the manufacture or use of an explosive, destructive device, or weapon of mass destruction, knowing that such person intends to use the teaching, demonstration, or information for, or in furtherance of, an activity that constitutes a Federal crime of violence.
Hmm. So it criminalizes teaching about things? Could that be a First Amendment violation?
Some will say so, but I don't think it's a very strong argument. Notice that the crime requires that the defendant intend that the information be used in a federal crime of violence. A federal court in San Diego considered a First Amendment attack on the statute and rejected it on that basis:
The specific focus of the statute is not on mere teaching, demonstrating, or disseminating information on how to construct a destructive device, but upon teaching, demonstrating, or disseminating information with the specific intent that the knowledge be used to commit a federal crime of violence.
Courts have upheld similar statutes so long as they require that the defendant intended to further an illegal act.
How are they going to prove what Goldberg intended? He's a troll. The whole point of his existence is saying things he doesn't mean.
Well, their case got a hell of a boost when Goldberg effectively confessed to the elements of the crime.
The complaint and supporting affidavit are here. The feds say that Goldberg provided bombmaking information to be used in a terrorist attack on a Kansas City September 11 memorial. The feds have a confidential informant posing as a potential domestic terrorist, referred to as "CHS" in the complaint. They monitored communications in which Goldberg encouraged CHS to engage in a terrorist attack using bombs at the Kansas City memorial, and sent him links to pages with instructions for making bombs, and suggested what sort of shrapnel to use in the bombs.
Now, Goldberg could have engaged in the troll's typical defense — that he knew that CHS wasn't a real terrorist and was stringing him along. I wouldn't want to go to a jury with that, but it's colorable. But Goldberg blew that defense by talking to the FBI when they raided his house:
JOSHUA GOLDBERG admitted that he provided that individual with information on how to manufacture bombs. JOSHUA GOLDBERG further admitted that he believed the information would create a genuine bomb. Specifically, JOSHUA GOLDBERG stated that he provided the individual with instructions on how to create a pressure cooker bomb. When creating the pressure cooker bomb, JOSHUA GOLDBERG admitted that he instructed the individual to include nails and to dip the nails in rat poison. JOSHUA GOLDBERG also admitted that he instructed the individual to place the bomb at an upcoming memorial in Kansas City, Missouri that was commemorating the September 11,2001 attacks. JOSHUA GOLDBERG stated that he believed that the individual did intend to create functioning bombs and would actually attempt to use them to kill and injure persons. During the course of the interview, however, JOSHUA GOLDBERG made varying statements in an attempt to explain his actions in providing bomb making information to the individual. In general, JOSHUA GOLDBERG claimed that he intended for the individual to either kill himself creating the bomb or, if not, that he intended to alert law enforcement just prior to the individual detonating the bomb, resulting in JOSHUA GOLDBERG to receive credit for stopping the attack.
So. By failing to shut up — which one should always do when confronted with federal agents, at least until one gets legal advice — Joshua Goldberg has made the government's case dramatically stronger.
Is this going to be another case where there was never going to be any terrorist attack because the defendant was dealing with a government agent all the time?
Sure looks that way.
So, how much time could he do?
The statutory maximum for the charged crime is 20 years. But, as Popehat readers know, his sentence will be calculated using the recommendations of the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines; the statutory maximum is only a ceiling and usually has little to do with the actual sentence. Plus, the feds will probably load more charges on when they indict.
We have very little information, and we don't know the final charges yet. But it appears to me that under the applicable guideline, taking into account only what's in the complaint, his recommended sentence will be very substantially less than 20 years. As currently charged, it's more like a couple of years if he pleads guilty. Of course, a judge can go above the guidelines, and may well do so in a case this vivid.
So. What's next for him?
He appeared in court and his Public Defenders agreed that he would stay in custody pending a bail hearing. That's often, though not always, a sign that the defense thinks they have a tough argument to get him out on bail. He's entitled to bail unless the government can show that's he's a danger to the community or flight risk in ways that amount and conditions of bail cannot address.
Normally, the next step would be for the feds to indict him, and for him to enter a not guilty plea on the indictment. But today apparently he got new lawyers and the U.S. Magistrate Judge ordered him to be evaluated for competency to stand trial.
What? He's trying an insanity defense?
Not necessarily. Competency is different than insanity. The insanity defense goes to whether the defendant can be held responsible for his actions. A competency exam assesses whether the defendant is even competent to stand trial — that is, whether as a result of mental illness he's "unable to understand the nature and consequences of the proceedings against him or to assist properly in his defense."
So if he's incompetent, he walks without even going to trial?
Oh no. First he gets evaluated at a federal psychiatric facility for up to 30 days. There's one in Springfield, Missouri, for instance. Then, if the judge finds by a preponderance of the evidence that he's competent, he stands trial. If the judge finds him not competent, he gets sent back to the federal psychiatric facility for up to four months to see if they can make him competent using drugs and therapy. Then he gets sent back for another assessment, and maybe more therapy and drugs, and so forth. He's in custody the whole time. Eventually, if it looks impossible to make him competent but he's still adjudged dangerous, he can be committed long-term.
The process of being shipped to a place like Springfield, and "treated" there, and returned, is notoriously unpleasant. I think I might prefer to get tried and sentenced. I mean, assuming I helped people make bombs or something.
What do you anticipate happening next?
He'll be back in 30 days, or longer if the parties agree to a longer time. The judge will make a determination of his competency, which the parties may or may not contest. Then, anything can happen. Remand to treatment if he's not competent, a guilty plea to minimize exposure, trial, and everything in between.
By the way, if his competency is in question, if I were his lawyer, I'd be thinking about whether I could get his confession thrown out. It's not a Fifth Amendment violation to take a confession from someone who is incompetent; a defendant still has to show police coercion. But a defendant's lack of competence can be one factor in determining whether law enforcement coerced a confession. It's worth a look for his defense.
Is that all?
Now do the DMCA case!